About Inbreeding

Inbreeding is the term used for defining the act of mating of two dogs which are genetically closely related to each other, for instance, mating between cousins or siblings. Selective inbreeding has been happening in the pedigree dog world for many centuries now, in order to ensure the purity of their bloodlines and increasing the population of a certain breed (which displays some desirable characteristics).
Inbreeding of different bloodlines conceived from a comparatively smaller gene pool is something that is critical for bringing about the distinctive and desirable characteristics of the majority of modern-day pedigree dog breeds. However, inbreeding doesn’t come without its inherent problems, and is rather looked upon controversially nowadays, as the understanding of selective breeding and genetics has increased among the common populace over a period of time.

Reasons why dogs are inbred
To begin, it’s important to highlight that if it weren’t for the selective inbreeding, a large majority of popular pedigree dog breeds wouldn’t be existing today, at least not how they come in their present forms!
All well-known dog breeds which are recognized under the popular breed standards have some or the other inbreeding history in their heritage, owing to the fact that the establishment of a particular dog breed can’t happen in a few months, but takes several years, decades and sometimes even centuries.
A dog breed is established when dogs of a particular region have some desirable characteristics which are highly unique to that small set of animals. These characteristics may include factors like a particular talent for some working activity such as gardening, retrieving or herding, distinctive looks and/or temperament. These traits which make that particular dog breed highly desirable ensure that they’ll gain popularity over a period of time and will be in high demand in the future.
Any surge in their demand leads to attempts at production of more dogs having the same kind of traits as the originals. And the only way to do that is by producing pups from either a dam or a sire, or perhaps both of that breed. In most cases, there aren’t too many original dogs around of a particular breed, that have all those desirable traits, meaning that there is scarcity of the gene pool from which new offspring having the same traits, can be produced. Therefore, it’s not uncommon to mate cousins, siblings and other close related dogs at that particular stage of breed establishment. It is only through such inbreeding that new pups having the same kind of traits can be produced.
Many people may also opt for outbreeding with unrelated dogs as it has many benefits that are absent in inbreeding, for instance the reduced likelihood of genetic mutations and inherited flaws. However, such outbreeding can dilute the desirable traits of the original breed. Hence, it’s important to achieve the right balance between these two factors. Please note that inbreeding is not always because of selective breeding through human intervention. It can also happen naturally in the wild. So, there’s nothing abnormal about it!